Amino Acid: Amino acids, often referred to as the building blocks of proteins, are compounds that play many critical roles in your body. They are organic compounds composed of nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, along with a variable side chain group. Your body needs 20 different amino acids to grow and function properly. Though all 20 of these are important for your health, only nine amino acids are classified as essential. Source

Artificial Sweeteners: Artificial sweeteners, or sugar substitutes, are chemicals added to some foods and beverages to make them taste sweet although they provide virtually zero calories. People often refer to them as “intense sweeteners” because they provide a taste similar to that of table sugar but up to several thousand times sweeter. Source

Branched-Chain Amino Acid (BCAA): Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are a group of three essential amino acids: leucine, isoleucine and valine. These amino acids are grouped together because they are the only three amino acids to have a chain that branches off to one side. BCAA supplements are commonly taken in order to boost muscle growth and enhance exercise performance. They may also help with weight loss and reduce fatigue after exercise. Source

Caffeine: a bitter alkaloid found especially in coffee, tea, cacao, and kola nuts and used medicinally as a stimulant and diuretic. Source

Callanetics: a system of exercise involving frequent repetition of small muscular movements and squeezes, designed to improve muscle tone. (Read our post, What is Callanetics?)

Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates are one of the three main classes of foods and a source of energy. Carbohydrates are mainly sugars and starches that the body breaks down into glucose. Source

Glucose: a simple sugar which is an important energy source in living organisms and is a component of many carbohydrates. Source

GMP Facility: A GMP Facility is a production facility or a clinical trial materials pilot plant for the manufacture of pharmaceutical products. It includes the manufacturing space, the storage warehouse for raw and finished product, and support lab areas. A GMP facility operates under the guidelines established by the CFR (Code of Federal Regulations) Title 21, Parts 225 (Current Good Manufacturing for Medicated Feeds – Subpart B), and Part 226 (Current Good Manufacturing Practice for Type A Medicated Articles – Subpart B). Source

Ketogenic Diet: A ketogenic diet primarily consists of high-fats, moderate-proteins, and very-low-carbohydrates. The dietary macronutrients are divided into approximately 55% to 60% fat, 30% to 35% protein and 5% to 10% carbohydrates. Specifically, in a 2000 kcal per day diet, carbohydrates amount up to 20 to 50 g per day. Source

Ketones: Ketones are chemicals your liver makes. You produce them when you don’t have enough insulin in your body to turn sugar (or glucose) into energy. You need another source, so your body uses fat instead. Your liver turns this fat into ketones, a type of acid, and sends them into your bloodstream. Your muscles and other tissues can then use them for fuel. If you don’t have diabetes, this process doesn’t become an issue. But if you do have diabetes, you can build up too many ketones in your blood — and that can become life-threatening. Source

Metabolism: Metabolism, the sum of the chemical reactions that take place within each cell of a living organism and that provide energy for vital processes and for synthesizing new organic material. Source